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| X | Y
A video connection interface. Also a generic name for
Y/C, applied to S-VHS or Beta E.
Acronym for Systeme En Couleur Avec Memoire (sequential
color with memory); the color TV system used in France
and throughout the Eastern Block Republics.
A device in a projector that gives life to displayed
images by emitting sound.
An audio playback technology that divides sound into
two or more sources, creating a more realistic sound.
An audio device dedicated to replicating the lowest,
deepest sounds ascertainable by the human ear.
A video resolution equating to 800x600 pixels in size;
acronym for Super VGA.
Generic name for Y/C, applied to S-VHS or Beta E.
Acronym for Subtractive Bi-Refringent, Effect, a technology
that allows two panels rather than three to generate
the full 16 color VGA palette. The top panel provides
white, magenta, blue, and cyan; the second provides
colors from white through yellow and to red.
The intensity of the color, or the extent to which a
given color in any image is free from white. The less
white in a color, the truer the color, or the greater
its saturation. On a display device, it can be adjusted
with the color control. Not to be confused with the
brightness, saturation is the amount of pigment in a
color, and not the intensity. Low saturation is like
adding white to the color. For example, a low-saturated
red looks pink.
In video, to move an electron beam across the raster
in a camera or monitor. To feed visual information into
a computer by means of an optical device called a scanner.
Also called "video converter" or "TV
converter", a scan converter is a device that changes
the scan rate of a source video signal to fit the needs
of a display device. Examples: computer-video to NTSC
(TV), or NTSC to computer-video.
A device used to change composite interlaced video to
non-interlaced component video, thereby increasing brightness
and picture quality. Also called "line doubler".
The process of making the scan lines less visible by
doubling the number of lines and filling in the blank
spaces. Also called "line doubling".
The displayed image (or interfering "noise"
on the image) rolling constantly moving on the screen.
Written instructions for visuals and audio in a video
program multimedia presentation.
Acronym for Small Computer System Interface.
product designation for System Distribution amplifier.
Acronym for Standard-Definition Television
Acronym for Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire.
Acronym for special Effects Generator.
Couleur Avec Memoire
Translated as "Sequential Color with memory".
A composite color transmission system that potentially
eliminates a need for both a color and hue control on
the monitor. One of the color difference signals is
transmitted on one line and the second is transmitted
on the second line. Memory is required to obtain both
color difference signals for color decoding. This system
is used in France, Africa, Asia, Russia, Saudi Arabia
and many Eastern European countries. Similar to PAL,
but produces color signals in a different manner, 625
horizontal scan lines, 50 fields per second (625/50).
A method of transmitting data bit-by-bit through a single
A way to transfer information by breaking the characters
of a word into bits which are then transmitted sequentially
along a single line. Compare to parallel, which uses
more than one line.
An input/output connection on the computer that allows
it to communicate with other devices in a serial fashion
- data bits flowing on a single pair of wires. The serial
port is used with RS-232 protocol.
A vertical synchronizing pulse divided into a number
of small pulses, each acting for the duration of half
a line in a television system. Serrations are used to
keep the horizontal oscillator synchronized during the
vertical sync pulse interval in early televisions.
Pulse Removal Switch
A switch on certain Extron
interfaces that removes the incoming serration pulses
from the computer video source.
A metal plate with holes or vertical lines that is used
to determine exactly where the electron beam strikes
the CRT screen.
Computer software distributed with the intention that
the user will pay a fee to the program author if the
program is considered useful or satisfactory by the
user. This type of software is typically available on
electronic bulletin boards.
The definition of the edges of an image. Also see "peaking".
Same as peaking control.
feature used to lock video displays together when using
Generator (or Test Generator)
A test emulation device for injecting a signal into
a circuit input; the circuit's output is usually identical
to the actual device being emulated.
To Noise Ratio
S/N ratio. The ratio, measured in decibels, between
the audio or video signal and the noise accompanying
the signal. The higher the S/N ratio, the better the
quality of the sound or picture.
Representation of a situation, device, or system with
a high degree of realism. Allows users to learn or practice
the operation of equipment without damaging it or encountering
other harmful consequences.
product designation for ShiftLock.
A type of audio connector featuring three leads, two
for the signal and one for overall system grounding.
A secure connector, often found on high quality audio
and video equipment. Also called cannon connector.
Computer System Interface
An industry-standard input/output bus for peripheral
computer devices, such as hard disk and CD ROM drives.
A standard peripheral bus on Mac computers.
Acronym for Society of Motion Picture and Television
The video test pattern consisting of color, black and
white bands used as a standard for setting up video
Acronym for Signal-to-Noise ratio.
Visual "noise" in a video picture giving the
appearance of white flacks of snow.
of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
SMPTE. Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.
A global organization, based in the United States, that
sets standards for baseband visual communications. This
includes film as well as video standards.
The programs used to instruct a processor and its peripheral
equipment to perform prescribed operations.
Spartial resolution is a measurement of the total number
of pixels displayed in an entire image, usually noted
in terms of horizontal by vertical (640 x 480).
A video mixing device that allows switching among several
cameras and a variety of special effects such as dissolves,
fades, wipes and inserts.
The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used
in transmission of voice, data and television. Most
is in the 900 MHz range.
A video effect where portions of images from two sources
divide the screen.
A common wave shape consisting of repeating square pulses.
Disc that is used to mold final replicated discs, and
which is made from the mother disc.
A subset of thye ASTC's standatd for DTV. SDTV refers
to digital signals with about the same picture quality
as analog NTSC images. Several ADTV programs can be
broadcast in the spectrum space taken up by a single
HDTV program. All HDTV sets will also reproduce SDTV
In audio, a process of using separate signals on separate
channels for the left and right audio, thereby giving
depth, or dimension to the sound.
In video, the term "still" is used as opposed
to "motion" because there can be a difference
in the way these two types of video are processed for
the best viewing results, especially when the video
is line-doubled or line-quadrupled. Still video includes
text and slide presentations, while motion would include
movies and TV programs. See "motion."
One film or video frame (1/24 or 1/30 of a second, respectively)
presented as a single, stationary image).
Acronym for SuperTwist Nematic.
In the audio/video business, a term for taking down
an installation, for example at a show.
The modulation sidebands of the color sub-carrier containing
the R-Y and B-Y information.
Menu(s) that enable the user to branch to a new information
location without returning to the main menu.
A bit mask used to select bits from an Internet address
for sub-net addressing. The mask is 32 bits long and
selects the network portion of the Internet address
and one more bits of the local portion. Sometimes called
an address mask.
The process of creating a full color gamut by starting
with white light and filtering out the unwanted components,
instead of adding red, green, and blue together. This
is exactly the same principle used throughout the typical
printing and color photography processes.
Color Process (CMYK)
Used in color printing, all desired colors are produced
by mixing Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Examples:
0% of C, M, Y and K = white (no ink); 100% of C and
M = red; 100% C, M and Y = process black. Also see "additive
Placing one image over another so that both may be seem
simultaneously. The effect can be achieved in many ways:
by more than one exposure on a single piece of film,
by multiple printing, or by registered projection. Abbreviated
An LCD type that is required to display
high density, high multiplex rate video information.
Unlike common LCDs with a ninety
degree light rotation angle (used in watches and calculators),
STN panels have a static "off" light rotation
of between one hundred eighty degrees and two hundred
(SVGA - A term used to denote higher than VGA (640 x
480) resolution. Most Super VGA computers/cards output
resolutions up to 1280 x 1024 and 16 million colors.
Super-Video Home System - A high band video recording
process for VHS that increases the picture quality and
resolution capability. See S-Video.
The composite video signal is separated into the Luminance
(Y, black and white information) and the Chrominance
(C, color information).
One horizontal pass of an electron beam from left to
right across the CRT screen.
A signal whose frequency is varied through a given frequency
range. The process of orienting the transmitter and
receiver circuits in the proper manner in order that
they can be synchronized. Home television sets are synchronized
by an incoming sync signal with the television cameras
in the studios 60 times per second. The horizontal and
vertical hold controls on the television set are used
to set the receiver circuits to the approximate sync
frequencies of incoming television picture and the sync
pulses in the signal then fine tune the circuits to
the exact frequency and phase.
Switched 56 service allows customers to dial up and
transmit digital information up to 56,000 bits per second
in much the same way that they dial up an analog telephone
call. The service is billed like a voice line-a monthly
charge plus a cost for each minute of usage. Nearly
all LECs and IXCs offer switched 56 service and any
switched 56 offering can connect with any other offering,
regardless of which carrier offers the service.
A device which allows the selection between more than
one source, such as: video cameras, VCRs, etc. In audio/video,
a means of selecting an input source and connecting
it to an output device or a system. Also see "matrix
Term often used to describe a special effects generator;
a unit which allows the operator to switch between video
camera signals. Switchers are often used I industrial
applications to switch between video camera monitoring
certain areas for display on a monitor, or system of
display devices. These kinds of switchers do not have
In video, a means of controlling when things happen
with respect to other things. Usually done with timing
pulses to insure that each step in a process occurs
at exactly the right time. For example: horizontal sync
determines exactly when to begin each horizontal line
(sweep) of the electron beam. Vertical sync determines
when to bring the electron beam to the top-left of the
screen to start a new field. There are many other types
of sync in a video system. (Also called "sync signal"
or "sync pulse".)
Separate Horizontal & Vertical Sync
The signal: RGBHV = red, green, blue, horizontal sync
</cgi-bin/htmlos/55.101.1425683368> (The sync
pulses that control the horizontal scanning of the electron
beam in a video device. NTSC standard is 15,75 kHz.)
and vertical sync </cgi-bin/htmlos/55.101.2477496221>
(Vertical sync is the timing pulse that triggers the
electron beam to turn off and then return to the top
of frame and start scanning the next frame or field.).
This signal is referred to as full bandwidth RGB with
separate sync. This is the height of signal quality
and stability. This requires five cables to carry the
signal. This can be thought of like the "line king"
of the video food chain; everything after this is weaker.
The signal: RGBS = red, green, blue and composite sync
</cgi-bin/htmlos/55.101.3571167202> (In video,
the complete sync containing both the horizontal and
vertical sync signals.). This signal is referred to
as full bandwidth RGB with composite sync. This is close
to the height of signal quality, but stability may suffer
a bit because we have added the two sync signals together.
This signal requires four cables to carry the entire
signal. We're getting weaker.
The signal: RGsB = red, green, blue and composite sync
added to the green channel. This signal is referred
to as full bandwidth RGB with sync on green. This too
is close to the height of signal quality, but stability
may suffer a bit because we have added the two sync
signals together, and then added that to the green channel.
This signal requires three cables to carry the entire
signal. We're descending the food chain, getting weaker
An electronic circuit that produces sync impulses.
When a circuit is intended to function according to
timing provided by a sync pulse, it can be designed
to operate on the beginning (leading edge) or end (trailing
edge) of that sync pulse. With some equipment, sync
polarity (plus or minus) may be a selected through an
A switch on certain Extron
interfaces that allows sync signal to be added to the
green channel as required.
A switching device that communicates with other components
in a system. For example, with communications between
a switcher and a projector, the projector's remote control
can command the switcher to change inputs. Also, the
projector can be turned on/off by a command from the